Distinct facial wrinkles are caused by repetitive and long-term use of the facial muscles. Such use causes stress on the overlying skin, especially in the adjacent connective tissue of the muscles. The skin ageing process is enhanced by substantial muscle activity, i.e. ‘wear and tear’ caused by endogenous (biologically programmed) and exogenous (UV light and environmental conditions). Frowning, contraction of the brows, pulling down the corners of his mouth and squinting of the eyes leave traces and strongly influences the appearance of a person. Another cause of wrinkles is the age-related loss of elasticity of the skin and subcutaneous fat.
Wrinkles are therefore caused by the interplay of three components:
- Contraction of the skin caused by muscle activity
- Loss of the inherent elasticity of the skin
- Loss of subcutaneous fat